Complete Blood Count (CBC) gives important information about the numbers and kinds of cells in the blood, especially red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. A CBC helps your health professional check any symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, or bruising, that you may have. A CBC also helps your health professional diagnose conditions, such as infection, anemia, and several other disorders.
Test includes: WBC, RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, Platelets, Neutrophils, Lymphs, Monocytes, Eos, Basos, Neutrophils (Absolute), Lymphs (Absolute), Monocytes(Absolute), Eos (Absolute), Basos (Absolute), Immature Granulocytes, Immature Grans (Abs)
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP-14) with eGFR is a group of 14 laboratory tests ordered to give information about the current status of your liver, kidneys, and electrolyte and acid/base balance. The test gives the current status of your blood sugar and blood proteins also.
Glucose-Blood sugar level, the most direct test to discover diabetes, may be used not only to identify diabetes, but also to evaluate how one controls the disease.
Bun or Urea Nitrogen BUN is another by-product of protein metabolism eliminated through the kidneys and an indicator of kidney function.
Creatinine, Serum An indicator of kidney function.
Bun/Creatinine Ratio Calculated by dividing the BUN by the Creatinine.
Protein, Total Together with albumin, it is a measure of the state of nutrition in the body.
Albumin Serum one of the major proteins in the blood and a reflection of the general state of nutrition.
Globulin, Total A major group of proteins in the blood comprising the infection fighting antibodies.
Albumin/Globulin Ratio Calculated by dividing the albumin by the globulin.
Bilirubin, Total A chemical involved with liver functions. High concentrations may result in jaundice.
Alkaline Phosphatase A body protein important in diagnosing proper bone and liver functions.
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST or SGOT)an enzyme found in skeletal and heart muscle, liver and other organs. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT) an enzyme found primarily in the liver. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
Fluids & Electrolytes
Sodium One of the major salts in the body fluid, sodium is important in the body’s water balance and the electrical activity of nerves and muscles.
Potassium Helps to control the nerves and muscles.
Chloride Similar to sodium, it helps to maintain the body’s electrolyte balance.
Carbon Dioxide, Total Used to help detect, evaluate, and monitor electrolyte imbalances.
Calcium- A mineral essential for development and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. It is important also for the normal function of muscles, nerves and blood clotting).
Testosterone, Total and Free Testosterone is a hormone that causes male characteristics. The blood level is used by men to investigate abnormal sexual development and sexual dysfunction. Small amounts are produced in women’s ovaries and levels are tested to evaluate virilization. The concentration of free testosterone is very low, typically <2% of the total testosterone concentration. In most men and women, >50% of total circulating testosterone is bound to sex hormone-binding globulin, SHBG, and most of the rest is bound to albumin.1 Routinely available assay methods used to measure total testosterone are not sensitive enough to accurately quantitate the free testosterone fraction directly. Free testosterone is estimated in this test by a direct, analogue radioimmunoassay method. This assay uses a labeled testosterone analogue that has a low binding affinity for both SHBG and albumin but is bound by antitestosterone antibody used in the assay. Since the analogue is unbound in the plasma, it competes with free testosterone for binding sites on an antitestosterone antibody that is immobilized on the surface of the polypropylene tube.
Insulin A hormone that is produced and stored in the beta cells of the pancreas. Digested food breaks down into basic components such as glucose, a main source of energy for the body. Insulin is vital for the transportation and storage of glucose at the cellular level; it helps regulate blood glucose levels and has a role in lipid metabolism. When blood glucose levels rise after a meal, insulin is released to allow glucose to move into tissue cells, especially muscle and adipose (fat) cells, where is it is used for energy production. Insulin then prompts the liver to either store the remaining excess blood glucose as glycogen (for short-term energy storage) and/or to use it to produce fatty acids. These are eventually used by fat cells (adipose tissue) to synthesize triglycerides to form the basis of a longer term, more concentrated form of energy storage. Without insulin, glucose cannot reach most of the bodys cells.
Estradiol There are three main estrogen fractions: estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). Estradiol (E2) is produced in men in the testes and adrenal glands.
FSH and LH Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is made by the pituitary gland in the brain. Control of FSH production is a complex system involving hormones produced by the gonads (testes), the pituitary, and the hypothalamus. Both estradiol and progesterone help the pituitary control the amount of FSH produced. In men, FSH stimulates the testes to produce mature sperm and also promotes the production of androgen binding proteins. FSH levels are relatively constant in males after puberty. Luteinizing hormone (LH) is produced by the pituitary gland in the brain. Testosterone provides negative feedback to the pituitary and the hypothalamus, helping to regulate the amount of LH secreted.
Progesterone measures the amount of progesterone in the blood, and helps determine the cause of infertility in women. Additionally, a progesterone lab helps track ovulation and and diagnose ectopic or failing pregnancy.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is used to diagnose a thyroid disorder in a person with symptoms, screen newborns for an underactive thyroid, and monitor thyroid replacement therapy in people with hypothyroidism, help evaluate the function of the pituitary gland (occasionally), and screen adults for thyroid disorders
DHEA,S Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is an androgen, a male sex hormone that is present in the blood of both men and women. It has a role to play in developing male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty, and it can be metabolized by the body into more potent androgens, such as testosterone and androstenedione, or can be changed into the female hormone estrogen. DHEAS is produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer layer of the adrenal glands, with smaller amounts being produced by women’s ovaries and men’s testes. DHEAS secretion is controlled by the pituitary hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and by other pituitary factors. Since DHEAS is primarily produced by the adrenal glands, it is useful as a marker for adrenal function. Adrenal tumors, cancers, and hyperplasia can lead to the overproduction of DHEAS. While elevated levels may not be noticed in adult men, they can lead to amenorrhea and visible symptoms of virilization.
Free T4 is the active form of thyroxine and it is thought by many to be a more accurate reflection of thyroid hormone function.
Reverse T3: Also known as RT3 or REVT3, is a biologically inactive form of T3, or triiodothyronine, one of two major hormones produced by the thyroid (the other is T4, or thyroxine). Under normal conditions, the body converts T4 to T3 and RT3 in specific ratios. In certain circumstances, the amount converted to RT3 rises, such as when the body is under stress, as in cases of serious or acute illness or injury. Drugs such as amiodarone and glucocorticoids can also cause increased RT3 levels. RT3 levels alone may not be indicative of a thyroid condition, since stress can cause levels to rise. A more accurate assessment may be gained by combining the Reverse T3 Test with the Free T3 Test to evaluate the ratio between RT3 and free T3 levels.
Tri-iodothyronine (Free T3) Blood Test: evaluate thyroid gland function and in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism.
C Reactive Protein hs (Cardiac Risk Assessment), also known as the C-reactive protein blood test, is used to evaluate the level of inflammation in the body. The test is commonly ordered to monitor conditions such as arthritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and coronary artery disease. The test is also used to measure the presence of infection after surgery and the level of damage sustained from a heart attack.
The Hemoglobin A1C is primarily used as a means of calculating average levels glucose in the blood over an extended period of time. This test is used to evaluate glucose levels in the blood over the 2 to 3 months previous to the test. This test is very important in managing one’s diabetes. Scientists believe that keeping the blood sugar in the body within normal range can help individuals with diabetes to avoid many of the risks and side effects that people with diabetes often face. The benefit of the hemoglobin A1c blood test is that is provides information on overall glycemic health over a several month period. Other blood tests of glucose level are highly sensitive to determining glucose levels at the time the test is taken, but they do not give information on average glucose blood levels. The test works by measuring the hemoglobin A1c level. Hemoglobin is stored in the red blood cells. When glucose levels are high, the sugar starts to combine with the hemoglobin. It takes the body 8 to 12 weeks to bring hemoglobin A1c levels back to normal. Therefore, if hemoglobin A1c levels are high, that means that there has been a high level of glucose in the blood over the last 2 to 3 months.
Vitamin D 25-Hydroxy is essential in the growth and formation of healthy bones and teeth. Without it, children can develop a bone-malformation condition known as rickets, and adults can develop osteomalacia, which is characterized by weakness, softness or fractures of the bones. Vitamin D also helps regulate levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in the blood, and has been shown to influence the growth of other tissues in the body as well as the regulation of the immune system. Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the development of conditions such as cancer, heart disease‚ osteoporosis and multiple sclerosis.
Sedimentation Rate– Blood test used to screen for inflammation, cancer, and infection. A high sedimentation rate is found in wide varieties of inflammatory, infectious, and malignant diseases – the presence of an abnormality which n
The AM cortisol test detects excess or deficient cortisol production in the morning when cortisol is at its peak. This blood test is often paired with the PM cortisol serum test and ACTH test to aid in the diagnosis of adrenal and pituitary gland-related conditions such as Cushing’s Syndrome, Addison’s Disease, Hypersecretion and Adrenocortical Insufficiency.
Homocysteine: The homocysteine blood test helps diagnose B12/folate deficiencies and to identify patients who may be at risk for heart disease and/or strokes.
Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1) is ordered to help diagnose the cause of growth abnormalities and to evaluate pituitary function. Somatomedin-C (SC) which is produced in the liver in response to stimulation by growth hormone secreted by the pituitary gland is an insulin-like growth factor level that is used to evaluate disturbances of growth and to monitor treatment with growth hormones.
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), is a protein produced by the liver. It binds tightly to the hormones, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone and estradiol (an estrogen), transporting them in the blood in a metabolically inactive form. The amount of SHBG in a patient’s blood is affected by sex and age, increased or decreased testosterone or estrogen production. It can also be affected by diseases and conditions such as obesity, liver disease, and hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Adult males test SHBG and testosterone levels to help determine the cause of infertility, decreased sex drive and erectile dysfunction, especially when total testosterone results are found inconsistent with clinical signs.
Ferritin Serum Test, is ordered to measure the amount of ferritin in the blood, which is an indicator of iron stores in the body. The test can indicate the presence and severity of iron deficiency or iron excess.
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by the prostate and released in very small amounts into the bloodstream. When theres a problem with the prostate, such as when prostate cancer develops and grows, more and more PSA is released, until it reaches a level where it can be easily detected in the blood. Doctors must try to both detect prostate cancer and to differentiate between slow-growing cases and prostate cancers that may grow aggressively and spread to other parts of the body.