The CV Health Plus Genomics is a comprehensive evaluation featuring an advanced lipid profile that utilizes NMR fractionation technology, inflammatory markers and a novel Insulin Resistance Score. It also includes an assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4 cardiovascular genes. These markers provide insight to clinically modify the expression of these genes.
Nearly 50% of all heart attack victims have normal levels of typical risk markers for CVD, including total cholesterol. This unique combination of advanced markers for cardiovascular disease helps physicians to identify up to 85% of individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, the markers for cardiogenomic risk provide an understanding of genetic concerns related to cholesterol metabolism, methylation and clotting activity.
The CV Health Plus Genomics includes:
Markers for Cardiogenomic Risk
• Apolipoprotein E (APO-E) plays a key role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides. The genomic variations of ApoE influence disease risk and treatment response. APOE4 is associated with hyperlipidemia and increased risk of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. APOE genotypes determine effective dietary and pharmaceutical therapies for dyslipidemia.
• Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism. Two variants of the MTHFR polymorphisms result in reduced enzyme activity, impaired methylation, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, abdominal aortic aneurysm, hypertension, and venous thrombosis.
• Factor II is also known as prothrombin. Polymorphisms of Factor II result in increased coagulability – and increased risk of venous thrombosis. Factor II SNP is also associated with increased risk of CVD, carotid atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation, and MI (when other cardiovascular risk factors are present).
• Factor V (Leiden) is the name given to the variation of the gene that affects the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. Individuals with this polymorphism have increased risk for coagulation and coronary artery disease, worsened by coexisting SNPs in Factor II or MTHFR.
Advanced Markers for Cardiovascular Disease
• LDL-Particle Number (LDL-P) is independent of the LDL cholesterol concentration. A person with normal LDL-C concentration and high LDL-P, is still at high-risk for plaque build-up.
• HDL-Particle Number (HDL-P) indicates increased risk of coronary events for individuals with a low HDL-P number, even in individuals with optimal levels of LDL-P.
• LDL-Size is highly associated with triglycerides and insulin resistance.
• Lipoprotein(a) or Lp(a) is influenced by heredity and has a strong association with coronary and peripheral cardiac events.
• hs C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an independent marker for systemic inflammation. High levels are linked to coagulation and vascular endothelium damage.
• Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase (Lp-PLA2), aka PLAC, is produced in the intima, promoting inflammation and plaque instability. It is specific for vascular inflammation.
• Homocysteine is an amino acid that has been linked to damaged endothelium, increased platelet aggregation, and the formation of atherosclerotic lesions.
• Fibrinogen plays a key role in arterial occlusion by promoting thrombus formation, endothelial injury and hyper-viscosity.
• Insulin Resistance Score determined by lipid sub-fractionation.